Estonian e-Residency is a digital identity program launched by the government of Estonia in 2014. It allows non-Estonians to access Estonian online services and conduct business online through a secure digital identity issued by the Estonian government.

E-residents receive a smart ID card, similar to a traditional ID card issued to Estonian citizens, which contains a chip with personal information and digital signatures. This card allows e-residents to sign documents digitally, encrypt and decrypt files, and access a range of online services provided by the Estonian government, including business registration, tax filing, and banking.

E-residency is not the same as citizenship or residency in Estonia, and it does not give e-residents the right to physical access to Estonia or the European Union. Instead, it provides access to the digital infrastructure of Estonia, enabling e-residents to manage their business affairs remotely from anywhere in the world.